Hemodialysis is a medical treatment used to remove waste products and excess fluids from
the blood in patients with kidney failure or end-stage renal disease. The procedure involves
using a machine called a hemodialysis unit, which acts as an artificial kidney to filter the
During hemodialysis, blood is removed from the patient body through a catheter or a
fistula (an artificial connection between an artery and a vein), and is passed through the
hemodialysis unit. Inside the unit, the blood is filtered through a semipermeable membrane
that allows waste products and excess fluids to pass through, while retaining important
substances like red blood cells and proteins. The cleaned blood is then returned to the
Hemodialysis treatments typically take several hours and are performed several times a
week, either in a hospital or outpatient dialysis center. Patients receiving hemodialysis will
need to follow a special diet and take medications to manage their condition and prevent complications.
Although hemodialysis can be an effective treatment for kidney failure, it does carry risks
and potential complications. These can include low blood pressure, infection, bleeding, and
the risk of blood clots or other problems with the access site. Patients considering
hemodialysis should discuss the risks and benefits with their healthcare team to determine
if it is the right option for them.